This course offers an introduction to three major types of formal reasoning: deductive, inductive (probabilistic) and practical (also known as decision-making). First, and most centrally, we will be focusing on the logical structure of deductive arguments in the context of sentential and predicate logics, and their applications in scientific reasoning. Next, we turn to inductive arguments forms within the frameworks of elementary probability theory and statistics, with special regards to reasoning in experimental research. In the third (shortest) module, we introduce the basic principles of decision theory and practical reasoning. This course is designed for students with minimal background in Mathematics.